Currently, four projects are being sponsored by the pooled fund study and brief descriptions of these projects are provided below.
V2I Queue Advisory/Warning
Conducted by Texas A&M Transportation Institute (PI: Geza Pesti)
The goal of this project is to perform systems engineering to result in a high-level design for V2I Queue Advisory/Warning Applications using a variety of approaches for both the vehicle side and infrastructure agency (Infrastructure Owner/Operator, “IOO”) side. This high-level design is intended to enable future development and testing efforts beyond this project. This project builds upon and is related to other prior (i.e., INFLO Q-WARN) and current (i.e., CAMP EDCM) efforts; and is not intended to duplicate, but rather to broaden and update the V2I Queue Advisory/Warning concept to reflect both EDCM variants as well as the rapidly evolving state of vehicle automation and connectivity.
The objectives of this project are:
- To gather foundational stakeholder input and assess prior work to identify additional gaps and needs
- To develop Concept of Operations and Use Cases that reflect the variations for both infrastructure-side and vehicle-side components
- In conjunction with CAMP EDCM project (which will identify vehicle-side requirements), to develop system requirements for V2I Queue Advisory / Warning systems, and an integrated and validated complete set of requirements
- To develop high-level design that enables other efforts to conduct prototyping and testing activities
- To coordinate with and review content from the CAMP EDCM project to maximize mutual understanding of vehicle and infrastructure perspectives and needs
- Task 1: Project and Systems Engineering Management
- Task 2: Assessment of Prior Work & Stakeholder Input
- Task 3: Concept Development
- Task 4: System Requirements
- Task 5: High Level Design
- Task 6: Coordination with and Review for CAMP EDCM Project
Using Third Parties to Deliver I2V
Conducted by Southwest Research Institute (PI: Cameron Mott)
The goal of this project is to develop common interfaces and data approaches for the IOOs to use to share their connected vehicle data with third party providers. This will allow the CV PFS members to implement a single interface approach that will meet the needs of multiple third-party data and service providers rather than accommodating each provider separately. A common approach across states may also make it easier for the pooled fund members to get third-party providers interested in using the member’s data.
The objectives to accomplish the goal include:
- Identify connected vehicle data and information that may be of use to third party data providers;
- Document the interface approaches used by various third party providers in various pooled fund member locations and the interface approaches used by various IOO data portals;
- Facilitate discussions among affected IOOs and third party data providers to develop consensus recommendations for common interface approaches;
- Document CV PFS consensus recommendations; and
- Submit recommendations to appropriate standards development groups for consideration in the standards.
- Task 1: Project Management
- Task 2: Survey of the Current Status
- Task 3: Development of Common Interfaces and Data Approaches
- Task 4: Submission of Recommendations to Standard Development Organization
Connected Traffic Control System (CTCS): Research Planning and Concept Development
Conducted by WSP USA (PI: Tom Timcho)
The goal of this project is to develop the research plan of the Connected Traffic Control System (CTCS) with prioritized research areas, and develop the concept of operations (ConOps) of the high priority research area(s).
The objectives of this project are:
- To review the existing studies and developments and engage with stakeholders to identify the needs of the current traffic control systems as Connected Automated Vehicles (CAVs) become more common, and map the potential benefits that can be achieved under CTCS.
- To engage, coordinate and collaborate with other stakeholders, including other researchers, infrastructure owner operations staff, deployers, traffic signal control vendors, standards groups, vehicle systems representatives like the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners (CAMP) and other Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), to avoid duplication where possible and enhance research outcomes through validation of needs and constraints.
- To develop the CTCS research plan and provide supporting information to enable assessment and prioritization of continued short and longer term research and development strategy.
- To develop a CTCS ConOps of the high priority research area(s) that comprehends the entire roadway system (i.e., considering traffic signals along arterials, interactions with ramp terminals, and ultimately freeway facilities from a multi-modal perspective that considers connected automation).
- Task 1: Project Management
- Task 2: Stakeholder Engagement Planning for Research
- Task 3: Research Review
- Task 4: Assessment of Technology Readiness Levels for Priority Research Areas
- Task 5: Development of CTCS Research Plan
- Task 6: Development of Concept of Operations of High-Priority Research Areas
Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal System – Phase III: Deployment Readiness Enhancements
Conducted by University of Arizona (PI: Larry Head) and California PATH (PI: Kun Zhou)
The goal of this Phase III effort is to make deployment readiness enhancements to the MMITSS prototypes that were developed and field tested in Phase II. The readiness enhancements are focused on creating enhanced and “cleaned up”, or mature, application code that is hardware agnostic and interoperable or transferable regardless of the hardware vendors or products.
To achieve these goals, the project team (University of Arizona and California PATH program) propose the following enhancements:
- Improve the MMITSS software manuals, including the requirements on the host platforms and compilers, the download and build instructions, software design documentation, and a specification of an API for the RSU DSRC interface that vendors can implement to support interoperability.
- Increase the source code maturity through code reviews with the MMITSS Development Group of stakeholders, including changes that make the source code hardware agnostic.
- Carry out additional development of essential functions for MMITSS through field testing for improvements and fine tuning.
- Identify enhancements required for deployability, including upgrading to the 2016 SAE J2735 message set, and field testing of traffic control enhancements including coordination (for both MMITSS-AZ and MMITSS-CA).
- Task 1: Project Management and Systems Engineering Management
- Task 2: Cross-Cutting Activities
- Task 3: Enhancement of Existing MMITSS Prototypes
- Task 4: Field Test and Demonstration
- Task 5: Technical Assistance to Deploy MMITSS
A total of 12 projects were completed with the support from the pooled fund study. Note that, IntelliDrive, the previous name of Connected Vehicle, appears in the early stage projects. Brief descriptions and the final reports of these projects are presented below.
Basic Infrastructure Message Development and Standards Support
Conducted by Southwest Research Institute (PI: Michael Brown)
The goals of this project are to develop a Basic Infrastructure Message (BIM); and to establish a means to collaborate with the relevant standards development organizations. While the standards (such as SAE J2735) of various messages for DSRC equipped vehicles are fairly well defined, from the infrastructure side, which infrastructure information will be or needs to be broadcasted is relatively unknown and has not been well investigated yet. With this, it is needed to develop a corollary message from the infrastructure, a Basic Infrastructure Message (BIM). Having a standard BIM would help the OEMs and third party application providers to understand that there will be some infrastructure for them to rely on, and will give them some basis for the kind of message they can expect from the infrastructure. In addition, this will also help the public transportation agencies to know what kind of information to broadcast from their Road Side Equipment (RSE).
- Task 1 – Project Management (No Separate Deliverable)
- Task 2 – Infrastructure Information Elements Review
- Task 3 – Standards and Related Activities Review
- Task 4 – Basic Infrastructure Message Development
- Task 5 – Basic Infrastructure Message Standardization (No Separate Deliverable)
- Task 6 – Connected Vehicle Standards Support
Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal System – Phase I: Development of Concept of Operations, System Requirements, System Design and a Test Plan
Conducted by University of Arizona (PI: Larry Head), California PATH (PI: Steve Shladover), Econolite (PI: Gary Duncan), Savari (PI: Ramesh Siripurapu), SCSC (PI: David Kelley), Kapsch (PI: Justin McNew), Volvo Technology (PI: Mike Siebert)
The University of Arizona has teamed with California PATH of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) to design a multi-modal intelligent traffic signal system that will operate in a connected vehicle environment. The team is supported by technical experts from connected vehicle system equipment manufacturers (Savari and Kapsch), a traffic signal control system supplier (Econolite), an SAE J2735 communications standards expert (SCSC), and a commercial vehicle technology company (Volvo Technologies).
The objectives of this project are:
- To develop a concept of operations, systems requirements and system design for a comprehensive traffic signal system that services multiple modes of transportation, including general vehicles, transit, emergency vehicles, freight fleets and pedestrians; and
- To prepare for field testing/demonstration of the developed Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal System.
- Summary Project Plan
- Task 1: Project Plan
- Task 2: Concept of Operations
- Task 3: System Requirements Document
- Task 4: System Design Document
- Task 5: Deployment and Field Test Plan
Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal System – Phase II: System Development, Deployment and Field Test (Final Report)
Conducted by University of Arizona (PI: Larry Head), California PATH (PI: Wei Bin Zhang), Econolite (PI: Gary Duncan/Eric Raamot), Savari (PI: Roy Jose)
The University of Arizona has teamed with California PATH of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) to design, develop, deploy, and field test a multi-modal intelligent traffic signal system that operates in a connected vehicle environment. The team was supported by technical experts from a connected vehicle system equipment manufacturer (Savari) and a traffic signal control system supplier (Econolite).
The objectives of this project are:
- To develop a detailed design, construct the software and hardware system, and conduct a field test of a comprehensive traffic signal system that services multiple modes of transportation, including general vehicles, transit, emergency vehicles, freight fleets and pedestrians.
- Task 1: Project Plan
- Task 2: Detailed System and Software Design (Detailed Design – AZ, Detailed Design – CA)
- Task 3: System and Software Development
- Task 4: System Integration, Laboratory Testing
- Task 5: Support Impact Assessment (IA) Contractor
- Task 6: Field Integration and Testing (AZ)
- Task 7: Field Integration and Testing (CA)
- Task 8: System Test and Evaluation (AZ)
- Task 9: System Test and Evaluation (CA)
- Task 10: System Demonstration and Final Documentation (Final Report – note this final report contains the results from Tasks 3-10)
5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication Vehicle-Based Road and Weather Condition Application: Phase I (Final Report)
Conducted by Synesis Partners LLC (PI: Kyle Garrett)
The objective of this research project is to develop and test the acquisition of road and weather condition information from 5.9 GHz DSRC-equipped public agency vehicles; to transmit this data via RSE to a central server; and ultimately to store it in the Clarus system for use by agency maintenance personnel. The project team is led by Kyle Garrett and Bryan Krueger of Synesis Partners LLC with Steve Kuciemba and Scott Shogan of Parsons Brinckerhoff and Sheldon Drobot from the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
- Task 1 – Requirements Development – describes the data elements and data sets desired for the road weather applications; determines what weather-related data are actually available on each of the vehicles; and identifies what additional sensors and equipment would be needed to provide the desired data sets. The output of this task is a messaging requirements specification.
- Task 2 – Concept of Operations – develops a Concept of Operations (ConOps) for an application to provide 5.9 GHz DSRC-based road and weather condition data to the Clarus system. ConOps includes use cases, a description of the system architecture, and high-level system requirements.
- Task 3 – Application Development – specifies the DSRC equipment, develops the OBE, RSE and data collection applications, and determines any adaptations needed to support integration with existing DSRC deployments on the Long Island Expressway and Spring Valley test beds in New York.
- Task 4 – Application Installation and Testing – procures equipment, selects deployment sites, assembles and tests the system hardware and software, and deploys the system components.
5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communication Vehicle-Based Road and Weather Condition Application: Phase II (Final Report)
Conducted by Synesis Partners LLC (PI: Kyle Garrett)
The objective of this research project is to develop and test the acquisition of road and weather condition information from 5.9 GHz DSRC-equipped public agency vehicles; to transmit this data via RSE to a central server; and ultimately to store it for use by agency maintenance personnel. Phase 1 has been completed and developed a suite of onboard and roadside equipment and software to enable data gathering from vehicles to roadside collectors. The system captures data on the vehicle’s on-board equipment (OBE) from diverse sources, and transmits the data over DSRC to the roadside equipment (RSE). This Phase 2 project will build off of Phase 1 and provide data aggregation from the roadside to back-office servers with end-to-end system testing. In addition, the developed system will be extended to Michigan as well as New York State.
- Task 1 – Requirements Development – completed in Phase I
- Task 2 – Concept of Operations – completed in Phase I
- Task 3 – Application Development
- Task 4 – Application Installation and Testing (New York State)
- Task 5 – Application Installation and Testing (Michigan)
- Task 6 – CV Application Compatibility
Best Practices for Surveying/Mapping Roadways and Intersections for Connected Vehicle Applications (Final Report)
Conducted by University of California, Riverside (PIs: Jay Farrell and Matthew Barth)
The goal of this project is to analyze and document the surveying and mapping requirements for expected connected vehicle applications, and to determine the best practices that should be used to satisfy them. An emphasis was placed on efficiency, particularly with respect to lowering the costs and time required. Here are some additional considerations:
- Safety of personnel performing the work
- Accuracy of the measurements
- Minimal/no lane closures needed
- Minimal time required to complete the work
- Creation of maps that are easy to update as aspects of the location change
- Task 1: Mapping Methodology Assessment
- Task 2: Mobile Mapping System Enhancements
- Task 3: Map Representations
- Task 4: Map Representation Updating
- Task 5: Feature Extraction Methods
- Task 6: Reporting
Traffic Management Centers in a Connected Vehicle Environment
Conducted by Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. (PI: Lisa Burgess), Noblis (PI: Mike McGurrin), DGD Enterprises (PI: Dorothy Drinkwater), and Adams and Garth, Inc. (PI: Bernie Wagenblast).
Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc. (KHA) has teamed with Noblis, DGD Enterprises, and Bernie Wagenblast to identify how a connected vehicle environment will shape the role and function of TMCs. This project is examining operational, technical and policy impacts of a new TMC environment and will inform the Pooled Fund Study (PFS) members about priority TMC opportunities, needs and gaps and that would need to be addressed in future TMCs. The objectives of this project are to:
- Identify current connected vehicle activities that have the potential to have the highest impact on TMCs;
- Identify what TMC functions or activities could most benefit from integrating connected vehicle data and capabilities;
- Assess overall “readiness” of TMCs to adapt to a connected vehicle environment and identify challenges, constraints and potential timeframe considerations; and
- Develop a concept for a future TMC within a connected vehicle environment to be able to proactively plan for future TMC operations, partnerships, and capabilities.
- Summary Project Plan, 2/5/13
- Task 1: Connected Vehicle Program Activities in Relation to TMC Operations Technical Working Paper
- Task 2: Expected Changes in TMCs Concepts Paper and Summary
- Task 3: Operational Concept for Future of TMCs in a Connected Vehicle Environment
- Task 4: Final Recommendations
- Final Presentation, 2/27/2014
Aftermarket On-Board Equipment for Cooperative Transportation Systems: Enabling Accelerated Installation of Aftermarket On-Board Equipment for Cooperative Transportation Systems (Final Report)
Conducted by Visteon Corporation (PI: Debby Bezzina), California PATH (PI: Ching-Yao Chan), and Industrial Technology Research Institute (PI: Michael Li)
Visteon Corporation has teamed with Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and California PATH of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) to address the critical question of how to expedite the installation of OBE units, which is a critical point facing the effectiveness of Connected Vehicle deployment, and to provide strategic recommendations in fostering rapid introduction of aftermarket OBEs. The objectives of this project are:
- To analyze industry’s ability to manufacture dynamic configurable multi-band aftermarket OBE units;
- To identify actions necessary to recue consumer cost of aftermarket OBE purchase; and
- To identify actions needed to accelerate installation of aftermarket OBE units in the vehicle fleet.
Certification Program for Cooperative Transportation Systems: Preparing to Develop a Standards Compliance and Interoperability Certification Program for Cooperative Transportation Systems Hardware and Software (Final Report)
Conducted by OmniAir (PI: Timothy McGuckin)
As a USDOT national initiative, the ‘Connected Vehicle’ is part of the overall Intelligent Transportation System program as broadly planned at the federal level. However, the deployment of Cooperative System and Connected Vehicle technologies (which includes V2I and V2V) will be implemented at a local level with many of the intricacies of infrastructure management and interoperability falling to state & local transportation operating authorities. Within this context, it is important that the needs of these operating authorities are considered and reflected in initiative planning and implementation tactics.
A critical component to the overall success of national, interoperable Cooperative System and Connected Vehicle deployments is a robust certification process that ensures performance and interoperability of said technologies and systems. This project investigated the current landscape of certification activity in this space, assessed the needs of state and local infrastructure owners, and identified the gaps that may exist between current activity and state and local needs. The ultimate deliverable is actionable certification-related recommendations that further promote state & local efforts to deploy cooperative and connected transportation systems.
IntelliDrive Traffic Signal Control Algorithms (Final Report)
Conducted by University of Virginia Center for Transportation Studies (PI: Brian L. Smith)
The effectiveness of traffic signal control algorithms depends primarily upon the control logic and the quality of the sensing infrastructure. Until now, with the deployment of fixed sensors, advanced traffic control algorithms were developed to use data available from point detectors. This data presents a number of limitations to the effectiveness of the systems. One such limitation in existing traffic controller logic is the lack of lane-by-lane gap out control feature (i.e., gap-out at actuated control is only determined by lane-group). Another limitation is the optimization approach taken in the existing algorithms. That is, an optimization of the traffic signal control relies on an estimation of performance measures (e.g., control delay defined in the Highway Capacity Manual) using vehicle counts, and do not use directly measure travel times.
As noted, current traffic signal control algorithms cannot take full advantage of the rich vehicular information that will be available from IntelliDrive. As such, the goal of this project is to develop and investigate expected benefits of traffic signal control algorithms designed specifically to take advantage of IntelliDrive. The objectives are:
- To develop and evaluate new traffic signal control algorithms by fully utilizing new IntelliDrive data sources,
- To develop tools for generating meaningful arterial Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) from IntelliDrive data sources, and
- To understand and document specific risks, constraints and opportunities of the developed algorithms in a large-scale deployment.
Investigation of Pavement Maintenance Support Applications of IntelliDrive (Final Report)
Conducted by Auburn University (PI: David Bevly)
Maintenance of pavements represents one of the most important (and costly) functions of a transportation agency. To do so, DOT’s must regularly measure/rate the quality of its pavements. Currently, this involves “manual” visual inspection and, in some cases, use of a specialized van with ultrasonic and video sensors to measure rutting and other pavement distress. In current practice, pavement assessment is conducted only periodically due to the limited availability of specialized equipment and the high cost.
The international roughness index (IRI) is a standardized pavement roughness measurement that was developed in the 1980s. IRI is usually calculated from longitudinal profile measurements obtained during pavement profiling surveys using specialized equipment. Another important measurement needed for pavement maintenance is detecting and locating (mapping) potholes. It is expected that, using IntelliDrive probe vehicles, pavement condition may be assessed with greater coverage in a timelier manner. Finally, the goal of this project is to investigate if vehicular data available from IntelliDrive can be used to measure the pavement condition. Specific objectives include:
- To develop estimates of the International Roughness Index (IRI),
- To detect and map potholes, and
- To understand and document specific risks, constraints and opportunities in a large-scale deployment of the proposed system.
Investigating the Potential Benefits of Broadcasted Signal Phase and Timing (SPAT) Data under IntelliDrive (Final Report)
Conducted by University of California PATH Program (PI: Steve Shladover)
There exists potential to improve the traveler experience on urban arterials by providing Signal Phase and Timing (SPAT) data. With SPAT data, a driver would be able to adjust (and maintain) his/her speed – possibly with the help from an in-vehicle application – so that he/she can progress through intersections rather than having to change his speed frequently, i.e. accelerating in the middle of links, decelerating before the intersection, and accelerating again after the intersection. This may result in “eco-drive” type benefits such as less acceleration/deceleration which will culminate into less fuel consumptions as well as less vehicle emissions. There are also likely safety benefits that travelers may realize given the availability of SPAT data.
Considerable interest is growing in beginning the deployment of the infrastructure component of IntelliDrive by integrating Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in traffic controllers. This would provide the capability to quickly begin to broadcast SPAT data for use by IntelliDrive equipped vehicles. Hence an important need is to develop a concept of operations and to conduct high-level benefits assessment of applications that make use of SPAT data. With that, the goal of this project was set to investigate the potential benefits of using broadcasted SPAT data under an IntelliDrive environment. In order to accomplish the goal, several objectives identified are:
- To identify the use cases of SPAT data
- To develop concepts of operations for each of the identified use cases, and
- To conduct high level benefits assessment.